There are numerous electric phenomena happening continuously in the human body: data transmission via neurons, muscular fiber contraction, etc.; besides, each cell possesses a certain electric potential at the cellular membrane. When suffering from any disease, such processes are impaired, system misbalance takes place. Electrotherapy provides for its stabilization by exerting stimulating or inhibiting effects on different chain links.
Electricity started to be applied for medical purposes in the early XXth century. This kind of therapy was initiated by Franklin when studying static electricity (one of the electrotherapy methods is named after him); Leduc and Arrhenius who benefited to electrophoresis principles elaboration; D’Arsonval who developed the method of HF alternating impulse current exposure on human organism, further named after him. Works by Faraday and Duchene formed the basis for transcranial electrotherapy (TET) (electrostimulation, electric sleep, electroanesthesia).
The TET therapeutic effect is based on impulse current exposure to different cerebral structures. Such exposure provides for direct therapeutic effect on damaged neuronal systems, improves functional conditions of cerebral cortex and subcortical structures, optimizes the functionality of various regulating centres of internal organs, hormonal system and metabolic sections. TET auxiliary therapeutic effect is called reflex effect and provides for normalization of functionality of different organs and systems, improves general efficiency, restores psychic functions, eliminates psychological overload and dependence of different types.
Therapeutic indications: neuroses, Degree I and II hypertonic disease, primary arterial hypotony, ischemic heart disease (if accompanied with Degree I coronary insufficiency, rare stenocardia attacks, during myocardium infarction rehabilitation), obliterating vascular diseases of extremities, initial cerebral atherosclerosis, bronchial asthma, ulcerous stomach and duodenum disease (uncomplicated), rheumatoid arthritis, if accompanied with neurasthenia, psychasthenia, sleep disturbances, pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of expansive cavities, excessive sputum and cough syndrome, phantom pain syndrome, skull injuries, post-traumatic encephalopathy (if not accompanied with arachnoiditis), asthenic post-medication schizophrenia; pre-and postoperative period regarding the resection of the stomach, small intestines, gall bladder; burn disease, trophic ulcers of legs, diencephalic syndrome (vegetative vascular form), post-effects of tick-borne encephalitis, glaucoma in the absence of retinal detachment, eczema, atopic dermatitis, rheumatic chorea, enuresis, stuttering, neuritis of the auditory nerves, vibration disease, radically cured cancer patients in recreation period, glossalgia, stomatitis, paradontosis, periodontitis, pregnant preparation for delivery.
Contraindications: current intolerance (inability to sense vibration), inflammatory eye diseases (conjunctivitis, blepharitis, iridocyclitis), retinal detachment, eczema and dermatitis on the face, hysterical neurosis, post-traumatic arachnoiditis and grave condition of the patient (high fever, decompensated ischemic heart disease, brain ischemia, advanced general atherosclerosis, Degree III hypertensive disease, circulatory insufficiency II-III degree).
Doses: The intensity of constant pulse current is dosed on the current amplitude value and administered to patients ranging from 3.5 to 10 mA. The duration of the first 2-3 procedures is 20-30 minutes, consecutively - up to 1-2 hours (rarely 3-4 h). Procedures are performed daily or 4 times a week (two days alternate with a rest day) or every other day. Usually they start within 1-2 hours after breakfast, lunch or before a night's sleep. A course of treatment prescribed incorporates 10 - 30 treatments.
Transcranial electrostimulation (TES therapy) is a therapeutic method of noninvasive stimulation. TES selectively activates the cerebral endogenous opioid peptide (EOP) system, primarily b-endorphin, with impulse electric exposure via head-fixed cutaneous electrodes. For proper selectivity, TES therapy requires two major principles to be followed: proper current application (forehead - mastoid bone) and proper resonance parameters for EOP. EOP serves a most important system of the human organism, which regulates neuro-immune-endocrine activity. The very low band of impulse current characteristics was proved to provide selective and reproducible activation of EOP system. When tested on experimental pathology models (animals) with proven range of current application, TES therapy was found to stimulate reparative regeneration of damaged tissues, provides for marked analgesia, normalizes vascular regulation, inhibits implanted malformation growth, gives immune-stimulating effect, eradicates experimental alcohol abstinence, benefits to increased nonspecific body resistance, etc.
The following major TES therapy effects have been clinically confirmed:
• normalization of psychophysiological status, anti-stress and antidepressant effects, increased efficiency, normalization of sleep, decreased fatigue, improved mood, improved quality of life in general;
• reparative effect: accelerated healing of injuries of different origin in all types of tissues, including skin and mucosal defects, regeneration of hepatocytes, peripheral nerves, connective tissue;
• effective analgesia, even in cases where drug treatment of pain turns ineffective. b-endorphin is known to have analgesic effect nearly 30 times stronger than that of morphine;
• normalization of autonomic regulation, normalization of vascular tone, blood pressure normalization;
• stimulation of immunity;
• inhibition of tumor growth, improving the quality of life of cancer patients;
• relief of abstinence syndrome, elimination of post-abstinent affective disorders in the treatment of alcoholism, substance abuse and opiate addiction, elimination of craving for alcohol and drugs;
• anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects;
• effectiveness of other treatments, including medication.
All TES therapy effects are systemic (due to EOP activation), that is why they appear simultaneously and fully. In this concern, TES therapy has a widest range of applications, thus determining its homeostatic purpose. All in all, more than 100 indications for TES therapy use have been studied.
TES method contraindications are: skin damage at the place electrode application, cerebral traumas and tumors, convulsive states and epilepsy, acute hypertonic crisis, hyperthyrosis, implanted cardiostimulators, age under 5.